Sixty-three years ago on September 25th 1959 the Prime Minister Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (SWRDB) of Sri Lanka known as Ceylon then was shot and seriously wounded by a Buddhist monk. Prime Minister SWRD Bandaranaike succumbed to his injuries and passed away the following day. Thereafter September 26th 1959 got etched as an important date in the post-independence history annals of Sri Lanka.
In later years , political assassinations became a regular feature in Sri Lanka.These killings proliferated when the armed secessionist conflict in the North –East and the attempted insurrections in the South were in progress. Among those assassinated have been an executive President, a leader of the opposition as well as a former leader of the opposition, cabinet ministers and ex-cabinet ministers, Parliamentarians and former Parliamentarians, provincial council ministers, ex-heads of district councils and local authority heads. A head of state survived an assassination attempt but lost an eye.
Against this backdrop of myriad assassinations during different phases of conflict, the solitary assassination that occurred sixty -three years ago may seem insignificant to some.What has to be remembered is that the incident was the first of its type in independent Sri Lanka. The impact of that single assassination was tremendous at that time.It is pertinent therefore to re-visit that assassination 63 years later.
The Parliamentary elections of 1956 was a watershed in the political history of Sri Lanka. The United National Party (UNP) that was in power from 1947 was defeated .The Sri Lanka Freedom Party led by SWRD Bandaranaike swept the polls as part of a coalition known as the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (MEP). Bandaranaike became the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon.
SWRD Bandaranaike as Premier was officially ensconced in the Prime minister’s official residence “Temple Trees” at Galle Road, Kollupitiya. Bandaranaike also divided his time between the ancestral manor at Horagolla Walauwe and his private residence “Tintagel” on 65 Rosemead place, Colombo 7. SWRDB was at “Tintagel” on the fateful Friday he was shot.
Ven. Talduwe Somarama Thero
A Buddhist monk named Ven. Talduwe Somarama Thero was among those who came to meet Bandaranaike on the morning of September 25th 1959.It was a Friday. The monk was a lecturer at the Govt college of Ayurveda or indigenous medicine in Borella. Somarama Thero who was attached to the Amaravihare.He also had an Ayurvedic eye clinic in Borella.The ostensible reason for the monk wanting to meet the PM was to appraise him of requirements for the Ayurveda college.
Talduwe Somarama’s name at birth was Talduwe Ratugama Rallage Weris Singho. He was born on August 27th 1915 to Ratugama Rallage Dieris Appuhamy and Iso Hamy. Weris Singho was educated at the Talduwe Ihala school and in Dehiowita. He donned the yellow robes on Jan 20th 1929 at the age of fourteen. Somarama was ordained in Kandy on June 25th 1936 at the age of twenty-one.
The Premier of the nation was in the front verandah of his house meeting people who had come to see him. One batch of people was accommodated inside while others stood in line outside awaiting their turn to go in. Talduwe Somarama also waited patiently in the queue for his turn and then was admitted in.There was a group of about 20 persons inside and a queue of around 40 outside.
SWRD Bandaranaike was proud of having ushered in the age of the common man. His Govt was regarded by the masses as “Apey aanduwe” or our Government. One manifestation of this was the easy access the people had to their prime minister.
Somarama Thero sat on a chair at one corner of the Verandah.He had placed a file and a handkerchief on a low stool by his side on his left. Seated on his right was another Buddhist monk from Polonnaruwa named Ananda Thero. The Polonnaruwa monk accompanied by some farmers had come to see the prime minister on a matter concerning the appointment of a cooperative society manager .Ananda Thero was later to prove to be a key witness at the murder trial.
As each person’s name was announced he or she walked up to the Prime minister , paid obeisance and articulated their woes and views.However when Somarama Thero stood up as his name was announced , Prime minister Bandaranaike himself got up respectfully, walked up to him and bowed reverentially as was the custom in greeting a Buddhist monk.
He then asked the monk what he could do for him. Somarama – who seemed tensed up according to Ananda Thero – told the PM that certain improvements were needed at the Ayurveda College. Bandaranaike then replied that he could get the Health minister AP Jayasuriya to attend to it if the venerable monk stated the requirements in writing and submitted it to him.
Fired Pistol at Point Blank Range
The time then was 9.45 am. Somarama Thero sat down and fumbled with the file on the stool by his side as if he was going to pull out a memorandum to be given to the Prime minister. As the prime minister was getting ready to receive what he may have thought were some papers, the Buddhist monk took out a pistol concealed in his robes and fired twice at point blank range hitting Bandaranaike in the chest and abdomen.The Prime minister made a loud sound like a gasp or moan and went down.He then got up slowly and with great difficulty, tried to stagger back inside the house.
When a shocked Ananda Thero got up from his chair , a thoroughly excited Somarama stood up and pointed his gun at the priest from Polonnaruwa. An agitated Ananda Thero shouted “Ammo”(mother). Somarama then turned around and followed Bandaranaike, shooting at him wildly. He fired four more shots thus emptying the magazine. One bullet injured the Prime minister’s hand.Another hit a school teacher named Gunaratne who had also come to see the Prime minister on that morning. A third shot smashed the glass pane on a door.The fourth struck a flower pot breaking it. Somarama Thero had used a .45 Webley Mark VI revolver to fire the six shots including the fatal ones.
Meanwhile there was pandemonium as the people on the verandah started scattering here and there in fear. Ananda Thero ran out and shouted to the Policeman on duty at the gate that a monk was shooting at the prime minister. The policeman who had already started running towards the house upon hearing the shots came inside and fired at Somarama Thero injuring him in the thigh.
Realising what had happened , enraged people now surrounded Somarama who was shouting excitedly that he had targeted Bandaranaike for the “country, race and religion”. After a scuffle in which Somarama was manhandled by the people , the monk was formally arrested by a team of cops who had been hastily summoned. . The furious crowd may have mauled the monk but for the merciful intervention of Bandaranaike.
The bleeding Bandaranaike lying on the floor had urged the people not to harm the monk in any way.The apprehended monk was taken away to the Harbour Police station amidst tight security. SWRD Bandaranaike was rushed to the General Hospital at Borella and taken to the operating theatre .
Unbelievably Unconcerned About Security.
Tragically, Bandaranaike never suspected any threat to his person and was unbelievably unconcerned about security. Given the levels of security available to VVIP’s today it is mind boggling to know that only a Police sergeant was in charge of the Prime Minister’s security 63 years ago. Even the sergeant in charge was not on duty that morning.Only a constable had been at the gates.
When attempts were made by concerned Police officials to provide Bandaranaike with a personal bodyguard, Bandaranaike had reluctantly agreed. A police sub-inspector was assigned. However Bandaranaike asked him to go back after a few days saying that a Sub-inspector should attend to more important duties and requested the IGP to assign a few police constables instead.
Unlike some politicians of the present era who regard the deployment of a large contingent of bodyguards as a symbol of their important status, Bandaranaike who thought of himself as a “popular peoples prime minister” felt a sense of embarrassment at being protected by many Policemen.
Parliament was in session at Galle Face when news of the assassination attempt reached the house. Education minister Dr. W.Dahanayake who was to later succeed Bandaranaike as Prime minister later wanted Parliament to be adjourned but the majority of the honourable members disagreed. The then Opposition leader Dr. N.M. Perera stated “there was no need to panic”.Several Ministers and MP’s from both the Govt and opposition left the house and made a beeline to Borella to see how the Premier was faring.
Governor-General Sir Oliver Goonetilleke.
The Governor-General of the time was Sir Oliver Goonetilleke. When news reached him of the shooting incident Sir Oliver was at “Queens House” swearing in the new Italian Ambassador Count Paolo di Michelis di Sloughhello. Sir Oliver stopped the ceremony and rushed to Rosmead place.Thereafter he sent a message to Parliament that it should continue to function in a “business as usual”manner.
The Governor-General known and respected for his political wisdom and statesmanship took the initiative of declaring a state of emergency as a precautionary measure. It may be recalled that it was Sir Oliver who acted decisively and declared emergency in May 1958 when anti –Tamil violence erupted in a situation where Prime minister Bandaranaike was vacillating.
A state of Emergency was declared at 11 am on Sep 25th by Governor –General Sir Oliver Goonetilleka and the Army, Navy and Air Force units including volunteers were mobilized and placed in readiness throughout the island. Subsequent events demonstrated that Sir Oliver’s anticipation of trouble and resultant declaration of emergency was indeed commendable.
What happened next was that Bandaranaike after surgery was admitted to the General hospital Merchants ward. He issued a message to the nation from his hospital bed in the Merchants ward.In the message the Prime minister was extremely magnanimous towards the man who had shot him. Instead of referring to him directly as a Buddhist monk, SWRDB described him “as a foolish man dressed in the robes of a monk”. The premier also called upon the government and authorities to “show compassion to this man and not try to wreak vengeance on him”.
This well-intentioned magnanimity may have had unintended, dangerous consequences but for the prompt action of Sir Oliver Goonetilleke who had declared emergency before the statement was issued. Anticipating another round of 1958 type of anti-Tamil violence the Governor –General issued strict instructions to the Police to be vigilant against any sign of violence erupting.
“Somaraman” a Tamilised Version of Somarama
Given the prevailing political atmosphere of the time where anti-Tamil feelings were running high the immediate suspicion was that the assassin was a Tamil. News began spreading that the name of the man who shot the premier was “Somaraman”. A Tamilised version of Somarama.So when Bandaranaike spoke of a “man dressed in the robes of a monk” rumours started to circulate that that a Tamil had dressed up as a Buddhist priest and shot the Prime minister.
Tamils in Colombo were very nervous then but thanks to the Police being vigilant nothing untoward happened. Sir Oliver “advised” the media to reveal very clearly without delay that the assassin was not a Tamil. The anti-Tamil feelings began subsiding. A replay of the 1958 violence was averted at that point of time.
Surgery for Five Hours
Some of the top doctors in Colombo performed surgery on Bandaranaike for more than five long hours. Dr. M. V. P. Peries, Dr. P. R. Anthonis , Dr. L. O. Silva and Dr. Noel Bartholomeusz were the doctors in the operating theatre. Dr. L.O. Silva was quoted by the media later as observing that “the first 24 hours after the operation was very crucial.”
Early signs after the surgery seemed rosy.The Prime minister had recovered consciousness a few hours after the operation and was cheerful. He had joked with the doctors and nurses around his bedside. He had asked one of the Nurses “How am I doing?” She replied “You are doing fine, Sir”. “Yes I am an old man and have undergone a five hour stomach operation but I still have guts,” the PM had declared. He had also dictated a message to the nation from the hospital.
Things however took a turn for the worse in the early hours of the morning. Three senior doctors – Dr. P. R. Anthonis, Dr. T. D. H. Perera and Dr. M. J. A. Sandrasagara were on hand doing their best but there was no improvement. The fourth Prime minister of Independent Ceylon passed away on September 26th 1959 exactly twenty-two hours after he had been shot at.
Took a Turn for the Worse
The official Bulletin issued after his death stated as follows “The condition of the Prime Minister suddenly took a turn for the worse about 7 a.m. There was a sudden alteration of the action of the heart and his condition deteriorated very rapidly. He passed off peacefully about 8 ‘O’ clock.”It was signed by Dr. P. R. Anthonis, Dr. T. D. H. Perera and Dr. M. J. A. Sandrasagara.
Subsequently a verdict of homicide was recorded by the City Coroner J. N. C. Tiruchelvam, J. P. U. M. at the inquest. He said “death was due to shock and haemorrhage resulting from multiple injuries to the thoracic and abdominal organs.”
Detectives from Scotland Yard in Britain were brought down to assist the Ceylon Police in the investigations.The then DIG-CID, D.C.T. Pate, SP Rajasooriya, SSIK Iyer ASP,,IP Abeywardena, IP AM Seneviratne and IP Tyrell Goonetilleke were responsible for the intensive Police investigation.
Who Conspired to Kill Bandaranaike?
The important question was the reason for the assassination. Why did Talduwe Somarama assassinate the Prime Minister? Who were the people who conspired to kill Bandaranaike ? In order to obtain a proper understanding it is necessary to briefly examine some of the events prior to the assassination.
The Parliamentary elections of 1956 saw the Sri Lanka Freedom Party led by SWRD Bandaranaike sweep the polls as part of a coalition known as the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (MEP). Bandaranaike became the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon.
Even as the 1956 victory hailed as a people’s revolution ushered in a new government of the common people described as “Apey Aanduwe”(Our Government) the state of ethnic relations in the country deteriorated drastically. Sinhala had been declared the sole official language of the country. Non-violent protests by Tamil parties were disrupted through organized violence. There were anti-Tamil race riots. Attempts to resolve the crisis through political arrangements were aborted because of extremist opposition. Bandaranaike who rode to power by pledging many things was wanting in performance. There was growing disillusion in the country and increasing dissension within government ranks.
The MEP coalition was an assorted mix of different political persuasions. There was also in broader terms a division along the traditional right-wing and left wing politics. The “Boralugoda Sinhaya” Philip Gunewardena commanded the leftists while the duo comprising “Minneriya Deiyo” CP de Silva and “Banis Maamaa” Wijayananda Dahanayake led the rightists.
Vertical and Horizontal Tensions
The country was undergoing vertical and horizontal tensions. On the one hand there was overt inter-ethnic strife on the grounds of language while there was on the other hand covert tussles on the basis of class and ideology. Sadly the ethnic dimension was exaggerated or distorted to divert focus away from or under-emphasise the class dimension.
Bandaranaike himself had begun acting against his class interests. The nationalization of bus transport, Insurance companies and Colombo harbor etc were some of the socialist measures enacted by the SWRDB government. Since most of the vested interests affected by these measures were UNP or pro-UNP it did not matter much to the regime.
But the Paddy Lands Act pushed through mainly due to efforts of Philip Gunewardena regarded as the “Father of Marxism” in the country had different repercussions. The act provided greater rights and concessions to the long suffering tenant cultivators.There was however a large segment of semi-feudal, land-owning classes supportive of the SLFP also. The Paddy Lands act hit these sections and there was resentment.
Mapitigama Buddharakkita Thero
In any event the right-wingers in the party were worried about the ascendancy of the left in government and party and began plotting a reactionary counter-strike. The aim was to drive out or undermine the leftist tendency within MEP folds.The dynamo behind right-wing machinations was a charismatic Buddhist prelate Venerable Mapitigama Buddharakkita Thero who was the Viharadhipathy or chief incumbent of the historic Kelaniya Raja maha vihara.
The priest’s influence was mainly due to his politics. He was the founder and secretary of the Eksath Bhikku Peramuna (United Bhikku Front) representing politicized sections of the Buddhist clergy. The Bhikku Front played a crucial role in mobilizing support for the MEP during the 1956 elections. Contrary to tenets of “Vinaya” , Buddharakkita Thero dabbled discreetly in commerce and had large sums of money at his disposal. The powerful priest had spent a lot of cash for the MEP election campaign.
His clout therefore was massive with the government and the monk was in a sense the Rasputin or Richelieu of Sri Lanka. He was also a hawkish communalist and spearheaded the campaign against the Bandaranaike-Chelvanayagam pact. Hundreds of Buddhist priests demonstrated against it thereby compelling Bandaranaike to abrogate it unilaterally. Mapitigama was the mastermind.
Now it was the priest’s mission to “cleanse” the government of leftists. The annual party convention for 1959 was held in Kurunegala. Bandaranaike presiding over the sessions was trying hard to maintain balance by containing the assertive right . It was then that Ven Mapitigama Buddharakkita Thero made his move. He strode into the convention belligerently and everyone stood up. There atmosphere was electrified. Once he arrived the mood began transforming. The right wing was on the ascendant. Internal party elections saw the “leftist” candidates being defeated decisively. It was a “right” royal sweep.
Exit of the Left
This heralded the exit of the left. On may 18th 1959 the Agriculture and Food minister Philip Gunewardena and PH William Silva the Industries and Fisheries minister resigned their portfolios. Bandaranaike formed a fresh cabinet on June 9th. Senator WPH de Silva who retained his Justice ministership resigned two days later. Seven leftist MP’s quit ranks thus depleting the government’s Parliamentary strength to just 47 out of 101.
The purge of leftists and assertion of rightists was a conspiracy to shackle SWRD Bandaranaike. The intention was to transform him into a puppet but the aristocratic Oxonian though beleaguered would not give in totally to Buddharakkita’s diktat. Irritated by this the “kingmaker” priest now decided to remove Bandaranaike altogether.
The flashpoint causing this change of mind was not race,class or ideology. It was sordid commerce.Two issues rankled. One was the Prime Minister’s refusal to hand over a lucrative shipping contract to a company named Colombo Shipping Lines that was co-founded by Buddharakkita in the name of his associate HP Jayawardena to import rice from Burma (Myanmar) and Thailand. The second was over a sugar manufacturing licence to start a sugar factory costing many crores of rupees. SWRD acting on the advice of Philip Gunewardena and RG Senanayake had refused to give the contract to the company resulting in great financial loss to Buddharakita and his frontman Jayawardena.
Thus Buddharakkita along with a clique conspired to assassinate Bandaranaike. Their unwitting instrument was Talduwe Somarama Thero who was an ardent Sinhala Buddhist nationalist. Being highly emotional Somarama was easily manipulated by Buddharakkita who convinced him into believing that the PM was a traitor to the country, race and religion and therefore should be eliminated. Somarama was a mere cat’s paw.
Seven Persons Charged
November 26th 1959 saw seven persons being charged in the chief magistrate’s court of Colombo on a charge of conspiring to murder SWRD Bandaranaike. They were –
1. Mapitigama Buddharakkitha Thero
2. Hemachandra Piyasena Jayawardena
3. Pallihakarage Anura de Silva
4. Talduwe Somarama Thero
5. Weerasooriya Arachchige Newton Perera
6. Vimala Wijewardene
7. Amerasinghe Arachchige Carolis Amerasinghe
In addition , Somarama Thero the fourth accused was also charged with commitment of murder.
Within a short time the seventh accused AAC Amerasinghe(Kolonnawa urban councillor)received a conditional pardon in terms of section 283 of the Criminal procedure code and thereafter became a witness for the prosecution.Non-summary proceedings began and after a long magisterial inquiry , the sixth accused Vimala Wijewardene (a cabinet minister in SWRD Govt) was cleared of all charges of conspiracy and deemed innocent of any complicity. She was discharged on July 15th 1960.
The Magisterial Inquiry under Colombo Chief Magistrate N.A. de S. Wijesekara went on for 124 days with 193 witnesses testifying.The Chief Magistrate committed the first five accused to stand trial before Supreme Court on charges of conspiracy and murder.
The Supreme court trial began against the five accused on 22nd February 1961 before Justice TS Fernando QC OBE . The foreman of the seven member Eglish speaking jury was DWL Lieversz snr. Ninety-seven witnesses testified and were cross examined.
The third accused Anura de Silva was acquitted with the jury voting unanimously in his favour. The fifth accused Newton Perera was acquitted on a divided verdict with five voting in favour of the accused and two against.The trial concluded on May 12th 1961 after fifty-five days of hearing. Within five days the Jury returned its verdict.
Death Sentence Pronounced
The Jury found the first accused Buddharakkitha Thero, second accused HP Jayewardena and fourth accused Somarama Thero guilty by a unanimous verdict.Death sentence was pronounced on all three of them. All three faced death by hanging. During the trial Somarama had stopped wearing the yellow robes when appearing in Courts.This led to Justice Fernando observing that Somarama “had a streak of conscience as he did not attend court in his saffron robes.”
All three convicted persons appealed against their death sentence to the then Court of Criminal Appeal. The five Judge bench presided over by Chief Justice Hema H. Basnayake comprised – Justices MC Sansoni, HNG Fernando, N. Sinnetamby and LB de Silva.
The Criminal Appeal court dismissed the appeal of all three but courts amended the sentences imposed on Buddharakkitha and Jayewardena from death to rigorous life imprisonment.
All three convicted persons resorted to have their verdicts reversed by the Judicial committee of the Privy council in the UK. Applications for special leave to appeal to Her Majesty in Privy Council by all three convicted persons were refused by an order of the Privy Council in May 1962. Sir Dingle Foot QC, appeared on an honorary basis for Somarama, at the final appeal before the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
Somarama Hanged on July 6th 1962
Talduwe Somarama Thero prepared himself to face death.He thanked in open court his counsel Weeramanthri who appeared for him without charging fees“I thank my counsel who defended me at this trial like a true lion.” Weeks before his execution Somarama was converted to Christianity and was baptised in his cell by an Anglican Priest.He was hanged in the Welikade gallows on July 6th 1962 at the age of 48. The hanging was undertaken by State executioner Lewis Singho and his assistant Subatheris Appu.
The Dudley Senanayake Government of 1965 -70 on May 7, 1966 commuted the life imprisonment sentences of the 1st and 2nd accused to 20-years.However the 1st accused Mapitigama Buddharakkitha Thero died in 1967 of a heart ailment aged 46-years after having served time at Welikada prison for 71/2-years of his sentence.The 2nd accused Hemachandra Piyasena Jayawardena served 171/2-years of his sentence and was released on August 4, 1977.
“Three-in-one – Sanga, Veda and Gura”
The tripartite forces who campaigned effectively for Bandaranaike in 1956 were Buddhist priests, Ayurvedic medical practitioners and teachers. It was said that “Sanga, Veda and Gura” were responsible for installing Bandaranaike as Prime minister.The bitter irony was that Bandaranaike’s assassin was a “three-in-one” personality representing all three. Somarama was a Bhikku , an Ayurvedic doctor and a lecturer in the Ayurvedic college. The tripartite forces who brought SWRD Bandaranaike to power were personified in the man who killed him.
DBS Jeyaraj can be reached at email@example.com
This article appears in the “Political Pulse” Column of the “Daily FT’ dated September 21st 2022.It can be accessed here –