DBSJeyaraj.com on Facebook

Beyond the sparks and fumes of India’s Agni-V Test

Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Print this page

Agni V- pic: PTI

by P S Suryanarayana


India now exudes confidence at having come of age as a space-faring power with a minimum credible nuclear deterrence. A follow-up task awaits New Delhi.

It must prudently send out the right political message across to China and other major powers.

Both China and India have consistently enunciated the principle of no-first-use of nuclear weapons in the conduct of international affairs. The two countries have also regularly called for the non-militarisation of space.

It is, therefore, insightful commonsense that India and China should now be able to move towards meaningful engagement based on the principles of trust or at least ‘trust but verify’.

Introduction: Techno-Nationalism

A post-modern dictum is: Space-faring leaders among states will dominate global affairs of the future in much the same way as the major sea-faring nations had in fact done in the past. The reasoning is quite simple but profound.

Space is man’s new frontier for the foreseeable future, while the high seas were at one time the uncharted expanse across Planet Earth. Another similarity is that the compass of space-faring enterprise will cover as wide a spectrum as in sea-faring activities.

The space-faring agenda of a country can promote not only its developmental objectives but also its military purposes of enhancing its defensive and/or offensive capabilities. In today’s international political discourse, such a high-tech agenda is increasingly being described as ‘techno-nationalism’.

In such a conception, India’s success in test-firing the nuclear-capable Agni-V long-range ballistic missile on 19 April 2012 can be suitably viewed as an affirmation of ‘techno-nationalism’.

Basking in the after-glow of Agni-V, officials of India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation, the architects of this missile, have in fact celebrated the event as a gigantic technological leap for ensuring the country’s security

India’s Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described the success as “another milestone in our quest to add to the credibility of our security and [defence] preparedness and to continuously explore the frontiers of science”.2

Taking due care, Singh did not identify the country or countries against which India was now reinforcing its security profile. However, a virtual tug of war in words ensued between the non-official commentators in India, on one side, and several opinion-makers in China with varying degrees of links to the Chinese establishment, on the other.

On the whole, the Indian commentators are convinced that Agni-V has more or less placed India on par with China in the high-tech space-age domain of skills to design, develop, build, and launch inter-continental ballistic missiles.

A Chinese Reality Check

A Chinese view, as reflected in Global Times, a newspaper believed to be close to the long-governing Communist Party of China, is no less stark. The paper’s oft-quoted comment is: “India should not overestimate its strength. Even if it has missiles that could reach most parts of China, that [scenario] does not mean it will gain anything from being arrogant during disputes with China. India should be clear that China’s nuclear power is stronger and more reliable

For the foreseeable future, India would stand no chance in an overall arms race with China”.3 The paper further cautioned India against participating in any international project aimed at “containment of China”.

These oft-quoted comments from China and the nationalistic triumphalism in India have, on the whole, puzzled and even dismayed observers in East Asia, where both Beijing and New Delhi are seen as players into the future.

Significantly, what has been generally missed amid all these sparks and fumes is a Chinese reality check which, too, has been articulated in Global Times in the same article that contains the passages quoted earlier.

The reality check runs as follows: “China and India should develop as friendly a relationship as possible. Even if this cannot be achieved, the two should at least tolerate each other and learn to co-exist. … It would be unwise for China and India to seek a balance of power by developing missiles. The geopolitics of Asia will become more dependent on the nature of Sino-Indian relations. … China understands the Indian desire to catch up with China. China, as the most appropriate strategic target for India, is willing to take India as a peaceful competitor”.4

As part of this reality check, some concerns have also been expressed in China that a mood of triumphalism in India could disrupt the recent gains of Sino-Indian cooperation in a multilateral setting. Noteworthy in this regard is the recent initiative by the BRICS forum – which consists of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa – to study the feasibility of setting up a South-South Development Bank

America’s Agnostic Stance

Conspicuous too, beyond such a Sino-Indian bilateral perspective, is the new tendency in some international circles to look at New Delhi under the prism of the United States (US). The reason is not far to seek: the growing perception that the US and India are slowly but surely gravitating towards each other in a bid to act in concert wherever and whenever possible for shaping the now-unsettled global order. In this context, the US, while taking the line that “we always urge all nuclear-capable states to exercise restraint”, has evidently declined to condemn India on its Agni-V launch. Washington is equally emphatic about India’s “solid non-proliferation record”5 on the global stage.

Ignored by Washington in this context is a parallel perception in some US quarters that New Delhi is engaged in vertical proliferation, i.e., the ‘sovereign’ right to proliferation within India to enhance its defence capabilities. In contrast, non-proliferation is shorthand for the restraint by a nuclear-capable country in transferring to external players its own nuclear arms or knowhow or their parts and the related delivery systems that could destroy targets in war.

Not to be missed in this maze of euphoria in India, caution and a reality check in China, besides America’s politically agnostic stance, is the politics of space as applicable to New Delhi and Beijing in the civilian and defence domains.

Quoting from Yanping Chen’s work on “China’s Space Policy: a historical review”, Michael Sheehan says in The International Politics of Space that “the Chinese space programme has had strong ties to the military from its inception”6.

Moreover, the US Defence Secretary’s 2004 and 2005 reports on The Military Power of the People’s Republic of China, took serious note of what was described as Beijing’s “counter-space” initiatives such as anti-satellite (AST) weapons. Such perceptions and Beijing’s successful “kinetic kill” of a non-functioning weather satellite in a deemed AST experiment, have led to the world-wide impression of China as a premier space-faring power in the military domain

China’s Space Prowess

Not to be missed in the international discourse on China as a space-faring power is its phenomenal success in exploring space for civilian purposes of science and national economic development. In 2003, China sent its first taikonaut (astronaut), Yang Liwei, into space, and in 2008, Zhai Zhigang became the first Chinese to perform the space walk. Before China, only two other countries had achieved these feats – Russia (Soviet Union) and the US.

China’s rising space profile has prompted a space scholar, Neil deGrasse Tyson, to write in Foreign Affairs as follows: “For the past decade, I have joked with colleagues that the United States would land astronauts on Mars in a year or two if only the Chinese would leak a memo that revealed plans to build military bases there. The joke does not seem quite so funny anymore. Last December (i.e., in 2011), China released an official strategy paper describing an ambitious five-year plan to advance its [Beijing’s] space capabilities”7.

China does not fight shy of its space-faring prowess. But Beijing, like New Delhi too, has consistently advocated non-militarisation of space in general and non-placement of weapons in space in particular.

India’s space-faring story is narrated with much empathy and accuracy by scholars like Michael Sheehan. He writes: “Though [India’s] contemporary programme is in dramatic contrast to Indian [economic] underdevelopment and [is] a striking achievement for a newly independent country, India in fact has a long historical legacy in terms of interest in astronomy and rocketry. [Globally] The earliest written account of anything resembling a space launch can be found in ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Rig Veda and the Mahbharatha, which speak of a vessel called Vimana ascending to heaven. The Vimana is described as giving ‘forth a fierce glow, the whole sky was ablaze, it made a roaring like thunderclouds’ and then took off.8”

Vedic Vimana

The resemblance between such a graphic account and the flawless Agni-V lift-off as an “intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)” is really remarkable. There is, of course, one significant difference between the trajectories of these two space-bound objects. Whereas the description of the Vedic Vimana’s lift-off corresponds to that of a civilian space launch of a satellite, the test flight of Agni-V was designed to use a dummy payload to ‘kill’ a dummy target at an ICBM range of about 5,000 km somewhere in the Indian Ocean.

Also to be noted, though, is that India’s successive governments have guided the country’s civilian space programmes to address down-to-earth economic issues of poverty, education, and public health at home. The scientific dimension of India’s space-faring skills is no less known.

Addressing the Indian Parliament in November 2010, US President Barack Obama referred to India in the grammatical usage of second person and said: “The world sees the results [of India’s indigenous efforts] from the supercomputers you build to the Indian flag that you put on the Moon”9.

Now, with the success of Agni-V test flight, India exudes confidence at having come of age as a space-faring power with a minimum credible nuclear deterrence. So New Delhi faces an urgent follow-up task of sending out the right political message across to China and other major powers. Both China and India have consistently enunciated the principle of no-first-use of nuclear weapons in the conduct of international affairs. It is, therefore, insightful commonsense that India and China should now be able to move towards meaningful engagement based on the principles of trust or at least ‘trust but verify’.

Such a choice by both India and China at the same time will help them consolidate the “gains” already made in the bilateral sphere and also take a realistic view of each other’s security concerns on the international stage

1 Mr P S Suryanarayana is Editor (Current Affairs) at the Institute of South Asian Studies, an autonomous research institute at the National University of Singapore. He can be reached at isaspss@nus.edu.sg. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute.

2 ‘New Delhi: PM congratulates DRDO scientists and technical personnel on Agni test launch success’ April 19, 2012, .http://www.pmindia.nic.in. Accessed 19 April 2012.

3 http://www.globaltimes.cn/NEWS/tabid/99/ID/705627/India-being-swept-up-by-missile-delusion.aspx

4 Ibid.

5 US Department of State, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/dpb/2012/04/188120.htm#INDIA. Accessed 20 April 2012.

6 Michael Sheehan, The International Politics of Space, Routledge London and New York, 2007. P. 160

7 Foreign Affairs, March/April 2012, The Case for Space by Neil deGrasse Tyson, p.23

8 Michael Sheehan, The International Politics of Space, Routledge London and New York, 2007. P 144

9 P S Suryanarayana, ‘India’s Place and ASEAN’s Primacy in the New East Asia’, Asean Matters!, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 2011, p. 239

Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Print this page


  1. Mr. SuryaNarayanan,

    I don’t know whether you have heard about a book titled Vymaanika Shaastra, written by Maharishi Bharadwaj.

    It talks about many vimanas,

    The Pushpaka is mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha.

    It also talks about Sundara, Tripura etc.

    This Tripura Vimana can travel in the land like a car, take off and fly and again land in land or water. It can also travel in water.

    It also talks about the special suites to be worn by the pilots, their food etc etc.

    The building of those kind of aircrafts are also mentioned and in one place it is mentioned that certain metal which is available only in Moon has to be used for building certain parts of that vimaana.

    These things you can read in a book published by the International Institute of Sanskrit Research, situated in Mysore.

    Incidentally that book was also translated from the sanskrit manuscipts by a person named Suryanarayana Sharma.

  2. According to Indian media their nuclear bombs and missiles are not country specific. What do they mean? Does it mean that the missiles cannot hit a particular target in a particular country?

    If that is the case in times of war, Indian armed forces would fire the missiles randomly and hope it hits any target not predestined and then claim to have hit the target. In other words fire and forget and wait until it hits any place anywhere and then name the target.

    There is not much pride in these 70 years old technology which essentially kills people and destroys their lives and livelihoods.

    Do the Indian scientists know the whereabouts of their Lunar mission vehicle Chandrayaan-1?

    Was is it planet specific?

    The logic to have all these ridiculously expensive hardware is based on gap modelling, the opponent has more of it therefore there is need to fill the gap.

    Tank gap, Bomber gap, Boat gap, Missile gap, defense expenditure gap, brain gap,….so the discussion goes on until the country is bankrupt by escalating the defense expenditure. .

  3. Dear Mahesh,
    The same information is found in Wikipedia and few other websites. The information found there is much more detailed. I have heard that the DRDO has released a statement saying that they are going to further develop Agni VI, VII and VIII based on the references you have given

  4. Mahesh,
    This is pure ignorance and I think you are from the Dalit hating beef eating society. What a pity. India has developed agni V and an idiot talking about some moronic literature

  5. Both Agni V and today’s sucessful launch of RISAT-1 are proud moments for our nation but science should be viewed in modern & scientific terms and should be free of religious considerations.

  6. I am not sure how these Agni going to help India or any countries. For argument shake, China and India get into fight, China decided to launch a-bombs, if they lanch hundreds (if they have that many) of them at the same time, while India still in lok-sbha making decision? How India would counter those lunched missiles? Shot them down on the air? Do they have those capabilities, even if they do shot it down in the air, how would they neutralize the effect and what will happen to the land below it, let say Tibet, Butan, Nepal etc… Similarly how China will counter the a-bomb attacks by India? Sure, both can fire but too many or almost all going to die, then why wasting all these energy/money into these ballistic missiles? The reality check is, all countries should develop good relationship between each other. UN should take control to calm things down when something arises.. If one country violating, UN should take all other countries together to bring one under control, otherwise, no single country can counter these demons a-missiles attacks.

    Most of the vimanas from the scripts are imaginary vehicles by some really good creative poet/story tellers. That doesn’t mean we had or used them back then, but it does shows that we had really good interest in astronomy and rocketry. We can appreciate their creativity of thinking outside the norm at that time, we can think now too… There are so many sci-fiction movies showing all these creative imaginary space shuttles and for example the movie “avatar’…

    Chinna is more than double the size of India with more than double the size of population. Like they say, “Take your own size”… Even if India develop sophisticated arms, would they ever match with Chinna, unless they make allies with other countries. Although India is one country, each state are on their own, I am not complaining about it, actually that is the plus point India. I would say, if India really wants to show some power, it should follow Europeans. Although all Europeans countries are smaller than India, with European Union, they are much bigger than India and closer to Chinna now. India should work with its neighbors and make SARC a meaningful union toward better relationship and growth.

    Although some Military inventions and innovations, does come back later into civilian use, but it comes only after scores of death. At the end I think, we need to make good relationships with neighbours and strengthen and build unbiased and effective UN council. Not just India but all should stop wasting time and money on building any kind of killing machines.

  7. Mahesh,
    Are you trying to be the next Sai Baba. The article is about strategic defence of india and you are talking star trek and star wars.

    “This Tripura Vimana can travel in the land like a car, take off and fly and again land in land or water” – We call this a Goose or some ducks

    “It also talks about the special suites to be worn by the pilots, their food etc etc” – Any one who has been on economy class knows, that pilots where a suit and what kind of shit food we get.

    “The building of those kind of aircrafts are also mentioned and in one place” – I have personal experience in building these two aircrafts. One is a paper plane (refer to paper planes by MIA) and the other is a kite (Check galle-face)

    “Mentioned that certain metal which is available only in Moon has to be used for building certain parts of that vimaana” – This is a common reference which comes from time to time during Sri Lankan election; HANDEN HALL GENWEEMA

    “Incidentally that book was also translated from the sanskrit manuscipts by a person named Suryanarayana (Sharma)” – THIS IS A SUPRISING PHENOMENON. We had a Suryanarayana=aka Sun God=aka VP= aka thalaivar and he is no more.

    Mahesh stop spreading bollocks

  8. Mahesh,
    Whats your point?
    Certain metal only available in moon, really really spooky. I think you are the guy who nicked all the moon rocks from NASA to make the hypothetical Tripura Vimana.
    Are you an Indian? in that case it’s a disgrace but if you are a Sri Lankan I salute you as they still read the mahavansa to find their life partner and to destroy the minority

  9. All those people who are criticizing Mahesh appear to be filled with hatred and arrogance and seem narrow minded. Every Indian should take pride in the fact that their ancients were able to conceive of the possibilities of space vehicles and other devices hundreds or thousands of years ago (even Michael Sheehan in the article acknowledges the fact, shame on the Indians here!). This is not a matter of religion or caste and all people of India should take pride in their ancients! Look at the Chinese and the europeans who are proud of their culture and history regardless of how embarassing some of it is to them. Moreover, some of these books may still give us novel ideas to create something based on the technology we have now. So, dont underestimate these ancient literature.

  10. China can no longer be a militarily threat to India .

    It can never afford to get hit by a nuclear war head.

    Now India can peacefully focus on its affairs with neighbours without being played China card.

  11. Mainland Chinese buy 30 Million “ipads” and Apple reaches an all time high propelling Nsdaq and pushing the Dow Jones to over 13G.

    Chinese Businesses and the rich Chinese in the big Apple alone is formidable , without even counting the rest in the other 50 odd States.

    GOPRC is lending the US treasury, 1 Trillion Green Backs each year, to add to the 10 Trillion they already owe the Ghinese.

    China is on par with the US in Fighter Jets technology.

    Mrs Clinton herself said the other day that there won’t be any cold war because China ain’t Russia.

    And the new post Geneva Cheer Squad here is talking about India taking on China with this new “Agni.”

    Get real guys. Why would even the US want to take on China unless they want to erase the debt records.

    India has 800 Million living on Rs 20 a day.

    How many of them would have benefited from the money they spend on these Missiles?.

    Our brilliant Opposition leader of course has put the Agni to good use by comparing it to the Cabraal Missile that is powering ahead our Economy that had a LTTE imposed hiatus of three decades.

  12. Thanks for the article DBS.
    Why the world has gone crazy. The Sinhalese are busy dismantling minority worshiping places in Sri Lanka and STRAIGHTFORWARD AND MAHESH, with Similar ideas are doing the same thing in a different way.

    This is why people never progressed in our countries for 1000s of years despite having advanced societies in the past. Someone down the line comes up with an historic rhetoric of no use. Your subject is history the article is about science, geopolitics and military advancement

    Hope you write comments on historical events

  13. Kalu Albert

    Fortunes can change over night with “greed is good, Greed works,………” ideals. Japan was seen as the rising power from the east. You will see the once rising economic power which had all the attributes now finding itself in a relative economic decline (mess), long term recession. There were other powers which met its day of reconciliation of its assets and liabilities.

    Look at all past powers “Rise and Fall of Empires” by Paul Kennedy gives you concise history, may help you to understand “what goes up must come down”.

    Please read the following para for your own good:

    “Japanese investors have accumulated approximately $2.8 trillion in assets abroad. Almost 10 percent of this total — $274 billion — is in the form of direct investments, defined as ownership of a sufficient share of a foreign company to presume some degree of managerial control.

    Foreign direct investment, however, does not represent the principal method of Japanese investment abroad. The single largest share, more than one-third of the roughly $2.8 trillion total, is in portfolio investment — equities and debt instruments, such as government or corporate bonds. These investments simply establish a claim on an asset for the purpose of realizing a return without managerial control. return without managerial control.”

    Arthur J. Alexander

    November 7, 1997

  14. Mahesh: It is interesting to know that the Indians developed Agni V based on some mythical and totally bogus tales while others countries make their scientific and engineering development of space vehicles based on physics and aeronautical principles. Wonder why all those Indains with PhDs in aeronautical engineering were wasting their time at places like MIT and Caltech. They should have stayed home while beefing up on Ramayan.

    While you are at it, why not use Mahabharath to provide basic hygiene and sanitation to many hundreds of millions of Indians living in abject poverty?

  15. Straightforward

    Thank you Sir, for your words. I have read that book myself. I am not able to understand it fully.

    But the book is there for everyone to read.


    Please gentlemen in this blog who criticize me, first read those things and then give your valuable opinion.

  16. Mahesh,
    I take your point, you haven’t understood it. If you have understood it you will know that it is all children’s talks
    Straightforward is another man who has not understood the book.

  17. To both Mr Straightforward and Mahesh,
    I think both of you trying hard to prove that Missile technology was from Mahabaratha. What do you think George Bush and Obama will think about this

  18. Glad to hear . atleast “Native Vedda” is focussing on the most important aspect of the lives of people in this day and age,, which is Economic and Investment issues.

    And these are the most important issues whether people live in the East or the West.

    Although the Western politics are totally and permanetly in orbit around these issues, us Eastereners got secondary issues like religion and race as priorities, for obvious reasons.

    The great majority of Srilankans are thankful to successive Japanese Govts for acting as a counter balance to the Western alliance which tried to bribe Srilanka with its 5 Billion to divide the country.

    Japan would have done better if their Military and Political power could match the Economic powr that they attained a few years ago.

  19. Few people here say that I have said this agni five is derived from some ancient book. I never said it like that.

    The reputed author had quoted the existence of such vimanas in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and also in the Rig vedas.

    I also added to that the name of this book vymanika shastra, that is all.

    But I believe that India would never use it against any country.

    I am basically against the nuclear weapons or these kind of delivery mechanisms,.

    But as Swami Vivekananda said that only the strength respects strength we need this to bolster our military strength,

    Let the teachings of Bhagawan Budha be followed in letter and spirit so that no cause for using them come in the future.

    The nuclear powers didnt use these nuclear weapons since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    China never used it.

    It never threatened India or any of its neighbors that it will use those weapons in any of the border talks.

    And I also believe that China is not an enemy of India.

    China will want to be friends with India.

    Eighty percent of Chinese are Budhists.

    And for any Budhist India is a sacred place.

    Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai was a slogan that went wrong, we may have to analyze the reasons for that.

    For the past thousands of years never has China invaded India.

    We are both ancient cultures and have lived in peace each other.

    Indian Prime Minister had said that China is not a threat to India.

    But China supplies nuclear and missile technology to Pakistan.

    I do feel like in the cold war period the US wanted India to be in its side and when India did not come into its fold it embraced Pakistan.

    Likewise China wants to be friends with India. When India is not reciprocating to those overtures then naturally it has to befriend Pakistan.

    One interesting thing is that those countries that have tried to play China against India have failed miserably.

    in the war for Bangladesh the Pakistan was so confident of the help from China and China also issued statements threatening behind a veil that any country that meddles with East Pakistan will meet its doom.

    Indira Gandhi just said that if and when India decides to intervene in East Pakistan the China will be able to do nothing.

    She signed a treaty with the Russia to protect herself against China and America.

    Russia could have tacitly moved troops into the border areas with China. I do not know this for sure but I read like this.

    Again the war was fought in the months of December when the passes will be closed due to the heavy snowfalls.

    In that instance no Chinese soldier could set his foot in the India to fight with her.

    That was a master stroke of Madame Indira Gandhi.

    Now people in the neighborhood are trying to play China against India.

    I only pity them for their ignorance.

    May Lord Budha give them wisdom.

    Finally India will be strong both militarily and economically in the future and its future greatness will outshine its past greatness, so has said Swami Vivekananda.

    But he has also said that more Rishis will be born in her laps and she will take up her rightful place as the giver of spiritual knowledge and awakening to the world.

    He has said that the spirit of India will be never in money or in military might, though Indians will make them both.

    But the spirit of India is that even moneyed and mighty persons bowing their heads before a saffron clad Rishi or before the God.

    I never wanted India to be a nuclear power or a missle power, but I feel proud of Indians achieving those feats.

    With this nuclear power and missile power can we threaten even weakest of the countries in our neighborhood, say Sri Lanka or Bhutan for that matter.

    That is not possible.

    So what is the use in having this capability. Just build them and keep them in cold storage keeping them ready to use them at any time.

    That time will and should never come.

    Why waste money in this wasteful enterprice.

  20. Kalu Albert says:

    USA forces are stationed in Japan for the past 65 or so years and Japan’s is part of Western defense alliance.

    Where necessary Japan plays good cop when West is seen as bad cop. Further, loyalties and strategic groupings are constantly shifting in an ever changing geopolitical environment.

    As you would not know, there are no permanent friends nor permanent enemies but permanent vested interests.

    In the case of Sri Lankan Tamils and Sinhalese, both are blessed with abilities to make enemies out of friends. I suppose this is due to both sharing M20 genetic marker.

    You say:

    ” Japan would have done better if their Military and Political power could match the Economic powr that they attained a few years ago.”

    In the past hundreds of years Japan built its military machine and got hammered by outsiders. Do you want Japan to commit further war crime and crime against humanity in China and South Eastern countries?

    That’s a good idea so that rest of the third world can focus on their own interest only if they know what it is.

  21. Mahesh says:
    April 27, 2012 at 8:40 pm

    Please consider rereading your own comment which contains factual errors, wishful thinking, inconsistencies and you are looking at the history as romantic and glorious past.

    You say:

    “But he has also said that more Rishiswill be born in her laps and she will take up her rightful place as the giver of spiritual knowledge and awakening to the world.”

    Did you mean Rishi Kapoor, Rishi Deepak, Manu Rishi, and other Rishis parting knowledge through Bollywood, Kollywood, Tollywood,…? It is an interesting idea.

  22. “For any Buddhist India is a sacred place” says Madras Mahesh.

    Hopefully our poor rural women and men won’t get beaten and roughened up at Mahabodhi in future, when they are on their way to worship Lord Buddha in his place of Birth.

    Also according to Mahesh even our Srilankan Airlines perhaps started ,with its inaugural flight in that Giant Wooden Peacock which was used to “pinch” that beautiful princess from India.

  23. The Chinese have already made a few of those Agnis and are offering them to the Indians. Looks like it is even cheaper than the Indian made one.

    Incidentally the US Navy and other militaries use a lot of Chinese made spare parts. Recently the Americans complained about the Chinese deliberately lowering the quality of certain parts used in the USN ballistic submarines..

Comments are closed.