by D.B.S. Jeyaraj
The current controversy surrounding the Sri Lankan
national anthem is an unwanted and unnecessary issue at this juncture.
In the aftermath of a long but successful war against separatism the
immediate task facing the nation would be healing the wounds of war
and strengthening a unified nation.
Military victory in war does not automatically result in genuine unity
being established.There is an imperative need to address the
underlying causes of the war by formulating an acceptable political
package acceptable to an estranged people. Capturing the hearts and
minds of the long suffering Tamil people of Sri Lanka is more
important than re- capturing territory held by the Liberation Tigers
of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in the Northern and Eastern provinces.
Despite the sensational military triumph the Rajapaksa regime has
displayed woeful lethargy in initiating meaningful political
initiatives aimed at redressing valid grievances and accommodating
legitimate aspirations. On the other hand issues like the National
anthem controversy are creating new problems and embittering hurt
At a time when the emphasis should be on ethnic reconciliation and
amity moves are afoot to cause despair to Tamils by tampering with
prevailing arrangements regarding the singing of the national anthem
in Tamil. Sinhala hardliners are demanding that the Tamil version be
done away with and that only Sinhala should be used. Some go to the
extent of saying that singing the national anthem in Tamil is illegal.
The official version of the Sri Lankan national anthem is in Sinhala.
That is the authentic anthem and there is no doubt about that but
there has also been a Tamil version (a translation or transliteration
of the Sinhala original)from the time Ananda Samarakoon’s “Namo Namo
Matha” was duly recognized as national anthem.
While the Sinhala version was sung in most official functions in
Colombo and Sinhala majority provinces the Tamil version was sung in
Tamil majority areas and Tamil medium schools. This accommodative
attitude was displayed at a time when Sinhala was the sole official
language and Tamil had no official status at all.
Tamil received national language but not official language status in
the 1978 Constitution. The National anthem in Sinhala was given
Constitutional status through clause seven of the same Constitution.
However the Tamil translation was also given Constitutional
recognition by way of the third schedule to the seventh clause.
Tamil received elevation as an official language along with Sinhala by
way of the 13th amendment to the Constitution in 1987. Tamil as an
official language received further enhancement in the administrative
and legislative spheres through the 16th amendment to the Constitution
It is therefore ironic to find that attempts are being made to do away
with the national anthem in Tamil at a time when the language is an
official language of the country whereas the anthem had been sung in
Tamil during times when the language had no official status.
There is also another and more compelling reason for allowing the
status quo to continue. The Tamils who want to sing the national
anthem in Tamil are not separatists or extremists. A recent article
in the state –controlled media stated that the pro-LTTE diaspora
wanted the national anthem to be sung in Tamil. Nothing could be
further away from the truth as this idiotic assertion
The silent majority of Tamils living in Sri Lanka want to sing the
national anthem in Tamil because they belong to and want to identify
with Sri Lanka. It is not a new right they demand but only the
continuation of what has been and is available. While giving pride of
place to the national anthem in Sinhala they only want to sing it in
their mother tongue wherever and whenever possible or applicable.
Let it not be forgotten that the practice of singing the national
anthem had gone out of vogue in the Tamil polity for more than three
decades. Federal Party (FP) and later Tamil United Liberation Front
(TULF) politics saw to it that alternative “Tamil state” anthems were
sung at political meetings. At least three different songs were used.
One was “Vaalha Eezhath Thamizhaham, Vaalha endrum Vaalhave” (Long live Eelam Tamil homeland,Long live forever) by Paramahamsathasan. The other is “Engal Eezhath Thamizh Thirunaadu,Kalai Vaazhum Ponnaadu” (our great Eelam Tamil land, the golden land where arts flourish) by “Thirukkovil” Ariyanayagam. The third is “Vazhiyave, Vazhiyave,Vazhiyave,Engal Thanga Maamanith Thamizh Eezham”(long live,long live, long live, our golden gem Tamil Eelam) by Kasi Anandan.
All these versions of a “Tamil Eelam national anthem” were sung
during the past decades when Tamil ultra-nationalism and separatism
rode high. These are different to the songs sung in “praise of
mother Tamil” or “Thamizh Thaai Vaazhthu”. This is a must in all Tamil
Personifying the mother tongue as mother Tamil and singing praises is
something difficult for non – Tamils to understand. Usually
Subramania Bharathy’s “Vaalha Nirantharam , Vaalha Thamizhmozhi,
Vaaliya Vaaliyave” (Long live in perpetuity, long live the Tamil
language, long live, long live) or Bharathidasan’s “Thamizhukkum
Amuthendru Per , Anthath Thamizh Inbath Thamizh Engal Uyirulkku Ner”
(Tamil is a name for Ambrosia. That Tamil,sweet Tamil is equal to our
life)are sung in honour of the “Tamil mother”.
After the ascendancy of Tamil militancy in general and the Liberation
Tigers of Tamil Eelam(LTTE) in particular the practice of singing the
national anthem in Tamil in the North and East began declining. Very
often the music alone would be played on official occasions.After the
LTTE established territorial control over certain regions in the North
and East the Sri Lankan national anthem was virtually discontinued.
The LTTE did not have a substitute Tamil Eelam anthem. Instead they
extolled the virtues of the “Pulikkodi” or tiger flag. The tiger flag
was portrayed as the Tamil Eelam or Tamil national flag. The LTTE’s
poet laureate Puthuvai.Rathinathurai wrote the song “Eruthu Paar,
Kodi Eruthu Paar” (See it being hoisted,See the flag is being
hoisted). This was sung during the mandatory hoisting of the tiger
flag at most ceremonies.
After the Sri Lankan armed forces began re-capturing territory from
the LTTE the writ of Colombo regained its dominance and authority. A
corollary to this situation was an inevitable yet pervasive military
presence. Consequentially the national flag fluttered proudly in the
North and East and the national anthem too began resonating.
Initially the national anthem was sung or played only in Sinhala in
the North but due to the persistent efforts of the solitary Sri Lankan
Tamil Cabinet minister Douglas Devananda , the use of Tamil in singing
the national anthem also commenced.
Slowly and steadily the national anthem was being sung in Tamil also.
What prevails now is a “mixed” state of affairs where Sinhala andTamil
are being used to sing the national anthem in Jaffna on different
It is against this backdrop that the current crisis has to be viewed.
After decades of alienation the Tamils of Sri Lanka are getting drawn
into the mainstream again. Once again they are emphasising their
overarching Sri Lankan identity. What better way to illustrate this
than by singing the national anthem?
At the same time Tamils also want to retain their ethnic identity by
singing in their mother tongue if possible. The finest example of
being Sri Lankan and being Tamil would be to sing the national anthem
Sadly this basic home truth is not being realised in certain
quarters. As a result an unwanted and unnecessary controversy is
brewing over the issue of singing the national anthem in Tamil.
A campaign is being conducted by majoritarian hawks to do away with
the practice of singing the national anthem in Tamil. There are
however indications that saner counsel is prevailing and that the
current National anthem controversy may turn out to be a tempest in a
Controversy however is nothing new as far as the national anthem of
Sri Lanka is concerned. A retrospective gaze into the evolution and
growth of our national anthem shows that the song has been mired in
controversy right from the beginning.
The concept of a national anthem was introduced by the British to what was then Ceylon. The modern Ceylon nation itself was a colonial
construct.It was the British who integrated different territories
under their control into a single entity and set up a unified
administration for the Country.
“God save the King/Queen” had become the British national anthem by
1745. This was through usage and custom and not by Parliamentary
decree. With the British empire expanding gradually “God save the
King/Queen” was sung as the national anthem in all countries and
territories ruled by the British.
Ceylon was no exception and under Queen Victoria’s rule “God save the
Queen” became in practice the national anthem for Ceylon too. This
continued throughout the twentieth century also.
The Ceylon National Congress (CNC) set up in 1919 on the lines of the
Indian national congress received new impetus in the second quarter of
the 20th century when Dudley Shelton Senanayake and Junius Richard
Jayewardene became its joint secretaries.
The CNC resolved to adopt a national song for Ceylon.Accordingly a
lyric was composed by DS Moonesinghe and set to music by the legendary Devar Suryasena son of Sir James Pieris. This was sung in 1943 at the CNC sessions. But “God save the King” continued to reign supreme under the rule of King George the sixth.
Thus when Ceylon gained dominion and later full independence status
there was no approved indigenous national anthem .The Lanka Gandharva Sabha was assigned the task of formulating a national anthem. A competition was organized and a panel formed by the Sabha was entrusted the duty of selecting an appropriate anthem.
This panel comprised SLB Kapukotuwa, Dr.OHD Wijesekera, Lionel
Edirisinghe, Mudliyar EA Abeysekera, LLK Gunatunga and PB Illangasinghe. In a controversial decision, two of the panellists were declared winners.
A song written by PB Illangasinghe and set to music by Lionel
Edirisinghe was announced to be the new national anthem.It began as – “Sri Lanka Matha/Pala Yasa Mahima/Jaya Jaya” and ended as “Jaya Jaya Dada Nanga/Sri Lanka Matha”.
The fact that a song submitted by two members of the selection panel
had “won” the national song competition evoked widespread resentment and protests.It was seen as blatantly unfair.
Although the song by the Illengesinghe-Edirisinghe duo was broadcast
over “Radio Ceylon” on the morning of Independence day as the
national song it was not sung at the official Freedom day ceremony due
While the song itself was flawless and above reproach it was the
perception of favouritism in the decision to adopt it that fuelled
criticism and protests. Thus the song which won the national song
competition was unacceptable as far as the people were concerned and
began losing credibility.
Meanwhile another song was slowly beginning to capture popular
imagination of the people as a potential national anthem. This was the
famous “Namo Namo Matha” written by Ananda Samarakoon who was a
well-known painter as well as poet.
Ananda Samarakoon was born on January 13, 1911 in a small village,
Liyanwela, near Watareka in the Padukka area. His parents, Samuel
Samarakoon and Dominga Pieris were Christians. The son was christened George Wilfred. His full name was Egodahage George Wilfred Alwis Samarakoon. There was no Ananda in his name then and he was known as George Wilfred during childhood and early twenties.
Ananda Samarakoon ~ pic courtesy of: sundaytimes.lk
Young George Wilfred studied at Christian College, Kotte (now Sri
Jayewardenepura MMV)In 1934, he joined the staff of Christian College,
as a teacher of art and music. Inspired by Rabindranath Tagore ,
George Wilfred joined Shantinekathan, Tagore’s School of Fine Arts
He joined Shantinekathan in 1936 and studied art under the famous
Bengali artist Nanda Lal Bose, and music and singing under Shanti Devi
Gosh. He came back in 1937 without completing his course and started teaching again. Upon his return George Wilfred became known as Ananda Samarakoon. In 1940, he joined the staff of Mahinda College,Galle.
“Namo Namo Matha” was not written originally for the purpose of being
a national anthem. Its genesis is interesting. Samarakoon used to pay
frequent trips to India even after his academic pursuit at
“Shanthiniketan” had ended.
On one occasion he returned from India by air on his first ever plane
trip. Samarakoon looking down was enthralled and excited at the sight
of his native land. He jotted down a few words and lines that came to
mind immediately after landing.
On October 20th 1940 he was at his ancestral residence in Padukka .
Unable to sleep he tossed and turned in his bed. Suddenly he got up at
about 10 pm and began writing a tribute to his motherland relying on
the short notes written after his air trip from India.
Samarakoon wrote late into the night and the immortal “Namo Namo
Matha” was born. He then took it to Mahinda College where he was
teaching and taught it to Students after setting it to music. The song
became popular and was included in a musical record in 1946. Being a
fine singer himself Samarakoon recorded the song with his partner
Swarna de Silva the sister of famous flautist Dunstan de Silva.
The song was also included in a book of poems published by him. It was
called “Geetha Kumudini”. Sadly Samarakoon was unable to re-imburse
the printing costs incurred to the printer RKW Siriwardena and handed
over copyright to him.Samarakoon was to regret this later when his
creation was acknowledged as national anthem.
When the Gandarva Sabha conducted the competition to select a national song Samarakoon was away from the Island in India but his wife and brother had submitted “Namo Namo Matha” for the competition. Though fully deserving it was overlooked and “Sri Lanka Matha ,Yasa Mahima” by the Illengesinghe-Edirisinghe duo was selected.
Despite “winning” the competition “Yasa Mahima” was spurned by most
people because of the manner in which it was declared winner. “Namo
Namo Matha” without any official status was enjoying wide exposure and popular acclaim. Its popularity among ordinary people was so great
that public opinion favoured “Namo Namo Matha” over “Yasa Mahima”.
The song became famous after a 50 member choir from Museus
College,Colombo sang it on a public occasion. It was also broadcast on
Radio frequently. “Namo Namo Matha” though without official
recognition was now becoming popular as a “de-facto” national anthem.
In 1950 the then Finance minister JR Jayewardene presented a cabinet
memorandum that the widely popular “Namo Namo Matha” be formally
acknowledged as the official anthem. Prime minister DS Senanayake set
up a select committee under the Home Affairs and Rural Development
minister Sir EAP Wijeratne (Father of Dr.Nissanka Wijeratne) to
finalise the issue. He had succeeded Sir Oliver Goonetilleke
The committee headed by Wijeratne considered “Namo Namo Matha” and some other lyrics and decided that Samarakoon’s song should be the national anthem.
There was however a minor hitch. The committee wanted a minor change in the words.Samarakoon was then in India and returned home in mid -1951 after being summoned by Sir Edwin AP Wijeratne
The song had originally been composed when the country was under the British.Now it was independent.It was therefore felt that the 10th
line in the song was inappropriate and had to be changed. Samarakoon
agreed to change the line.
So the line “Nawa jeewana Damine” was altered to “Nawa Jeewana Demine Nithina Apa pupudu Karan Matha” with the wholehearted consent and approval of Ananda Samarakoon.
Sir EAP Wijeratne then presented a cabinet paper in August 1951
recommending “Namo Namo Matha” as the national anthem.It was
unanimously approved by cabinet and formally adopted on November 22nd 1951.
There were two Tamil ministers in the DS Senanayake cabinet then. They were GG Ponnambalam and C.Sittambalam.It is said that even before they could make a request Premier DS Senanayake stated that a suitable Tamil translation be formally adopted.The select committee headed by Sir EAP Wijeratne had accepted in principle that there be a Tamil version of the national anthem.
The Tamil scholar Pundit M.Nallathamby was entrusted this task and a
neat Transliteration was done.The Tamil version came into use and was
extensively used in official functions in the pre-dominantly Tamil
speaking Northern and Eastern provinces.
The remarkable attribute of Sri Lanka’s national anthem is that it
sings paeans of patriotic praise to the country alone and not to any
race, religion, caste,creed or community. It is not parochial or
partisan and appeals to the patriotic sentiments of all children of
the Lankan mother.
Hence, the Tamil people found no reason to reject or protest against
the national anthem. Once the meaning of the Sinhala words was known no Tamil found it objectionable. With an appropriate transliteration available the Tamils of Sri Lanka found themselves singing the national anthem with emotion and fervour in their mother tongue.
Four years after Freedom on February 4th 1952 , “Namo Namo Matha” was sung at Independence day ceremonies as the official national anthem.
The Tamil version “Namo Namo Thaye” was sung in related independence day functions at the Jaffna,Vavuniya,Mannar, Trincomalee and Batticaloa Kachcheries.When Sir John Kotelawela visited Jaffna in 1954 the Tamil version of the national anthem was sung at functions felicitating the Prime minister.
On March 12th 1952 the Government published huge advertisements in
Sinhala,Tamil and English newspapers announcing that “Namo Namo Matha” was the national anthem. While words in Sinhala and Tamil were
published in the Sinhala and Tamil newspapers respectively the English
newspapers had Sinhala words written in English.
While Namo Namo Matha was now being sung as the official anthem there was no uniformity in the melody or manner of singing. Different choirs and singers were rendering it in different ways.This was causing much confusion.
So the Government decided to appoint a committee to ensure that
uniformity was ensured in rendering the national anthem.An eleven
member committee was appointed in 1953. Among its members were Ananda Samarakoon himself, Devar Suryasena and JDA Perera.
This committee set out guidelines as to how the anthem should be sung
and also defined the exact tune for it.The melody was a refined
version of the original tune composed by Samarakoon.The reputed firm
Cargills then agents for HMV records was given the order to make
records of the national anthem.
A disc was also cut for the Tamil version of the national anthem.
While the melody and music was the same as that of the Sinhala version by Ananda Samarakoon the Tamil words written by Pundit Nallathamby were sung by two women Sangari and Meena. The Tamil version was first broadcast officially on “Radio Ceylon” on February 4th 1955.
On June 24th 1954 the cabinet of Sir John Kotelawela formally endorsed
the tune and singing of the National Anthem. The copyright ownership
of “Namo Namo Matha” was formally acquired by the Government after
payment of Rupees 2500 on that day. The money however did not go to Ananda Samarakoon as he had already transferred copyright to
Siriwardena the printing press owner who had first published the song
in a book of poems.
Having one’s composition officially recognized as the national anthem
is indeed a great achievement.Ananda Samarakoon having accomplished
this feat was entitled to bask in glory after reaching that milepost.
Alas!That was not to be so.Instead of a dream existence there
commenced an ordeal that turned out to be a cruel nightmare.
In 1956 SWRD Bandaranaike became Prime minister riding the crest of a
Sinhala nationalist wave. The new Government hailed as “Apey Aanduwe” ran into a series of problems and difficulties soon. There were political demonstrations against the government, strikes by workers, communal violence and natural disasters like floods, fires and
In the search for scapegoats certain elements (with vested interests
perhaps) pounced upon the national anthem.In a burst of superstitious
or irrational frenzy “Namo Namo Matha” was singled out as the cause
for all the troubles afflicting the country under the Bandaranaike
A vicious campaign was launched against “Namo Namo Matha”. The charge was that the notations in “Namo Namo Matha” were unlucky and the cause for the Country’s ills and misfortunes. The letter “Na” at the
beginning was described as a malefix.The inauspicious “Ganaka” or
“Gana” at the beginning of the national anthem had an ill-effect on
the country it was alleged.
A ‘gana’ is the placing of the first three syllables – how the long
and short syllables occur. The opening words of the anthem ‘na-mo-na’
short-long-short constituted an unlucky gana it was stated.
As criticism mounted Ananda Samarakoon was constrained to defend
himself against the charges. He engaged in many newspaper debates and also spoke at public meetings in defence of “Namo Namo Matha”.
To make matters worse Samarakoon underwent financial difficulties.
Although he conducted a regular program on the Educational service run by “Radio Ceylon” his creative compositions did not meet with much
commercial success.He produced a song and dance pageant “Amaraneeya Lanka” in 1957 but it was a major flop. The onslaught against “Namo Namo Matha” destroyed Samarakoon’s peace of mind.
In September 1959 ,the Prime minister SWRD Bandaranaike was
assassinated. Elections to Parliament in March 1960 saw a hung
Parliament emerge. Dudley Senanayake’s short lived minority government fell. Fresh elections were called. The Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) was swept to power in July 1960. Bandaranaike’s widow Sirima became Prime minister.
The new Government took the campaign against “Namo Namo
Matha” seriously. The Home and Cultural Affairs minister Maithripala
Senanayake appointed a committe of “experts” to examine the issue and determine whether the national anthem was the cause of the Country’s troubles.
The committee recommended that the words “Namo Namo Matha” be changed to “Sri Lanka Matha”. Ananda Samarakoon protested vehemently and opposed the proposed change. The Government however went ahead and unilaterally amended the national anthem from “Namo Namo Matha” to “Sri Lanka Matha” in February 1961.
Ananda Samarakoon’s consent was not obtained.Since copyright was now vested with the Government there was no legal remedy available to the poet to prevent this arbitrary action.
The act however had a distressing and debilitating effect on the poet.
The well –known journalist Kumudini Hettiarachchi wrote a poignant
article about Ananda Samarakoon in the “Sunday Times” some years ago.
In that article she quotes the poet’s nephew Sunil Samarakoon about
how the matter affected his uncle.
One day when Sunil was eleven years old his uncle had parked his baby
Austin car near the gates and shouted out to Sunil “Puthe ,Mage oluwa
galawala, wena ekak hikarala” (son my head has been removed and
another fixed instead)
“When Loku Thaththa told me that his head had been removed and another placed there, I was just a child and didn’t catch the significance, until much later. He was, of course, referring to the substitution of Namo, Namo Matha, with Sri Lanka Matha in the National Anthem,” said Sunil Samarakoon, nephew of Ananda Samarakoon, the composer of Sri Lanka’s National Anthem.
“I remember the day he came home to talk to my father, as he usually
did when he had a problem. When I went to greet him as soon as he
parked his car, he put his hand on my shoulder and said those words
about the oluva (head) in despair. He was never the same again. He
became morose. They had changed it without even consulting him.”
Writes Kumudini quoting Sunil.
On April 5th 1962 Ananda Samarakoon was found dead.. His door was
broken open as he was not answering knocks on his door. The inquest
revealed that he had died of an overdose of sleeping tablets.There was
a letter on his desk to then opposition leader Dudley Senanayake
complaining of how his anthem had been mutilated. There was also a
serene painting on his easel of Lord Buddha meditating and a deer
A few days before his death, Samarakoon wrote a letter to the
‘Timesman’ column on the “Times of Ceylon” newspaper .He wrote, “The
anthem has been beheaded. It has not only destroyed the song, but also destroyed the life of the composer. I am frustrated and
broken-hearted. It is a misfortune to live in a country where such
things happen to a humble composer. Death would be preferable”.
January 13th 2011 is the birth centenary of this great poet and
lyricist who bestowed upon this country its national anthem. The
nation owes him a grand commemoration. It would be far more useful to
celebrate the birth centenary of the man who gave us our national
anthem instead of squabbling over the language in which to sing it .
DBS Jeyaraj can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org